Qazvin: An Industrial And Touristy City
Qazvin, an ancient and touristy City, is located 135 kilometers northwest of Tehran on the foothills of Alborz mountain range. Qazvin is one of the most important cultural and economic centers in Iran thanks to being located on the most important roads of the Country, possessing a vast and fertile plain and buoyant agriculture, enjoying temperate climate, having industrial cities in its surroundings together with various religious schools and centers for higher education, especially Imam Khomeini International University.
The establishment of Qazvin, based on some historical writings, dates back to mid fifth millennium before Christ and according to other findings to the Sassanid era in Iranian history. Apparently, Shapoor Zolaktaf (310-371 AD) ordered the building of a castle to prevent Deilamiyan’s aggressions in an area that later became the City of Qazvin. Some historians believe that the name "Qazvin" is derived from "Kashvin", meaning border keeping and some orientalists are of the view that the name is taken from the name of tribes called Kaspin who settled to the west of Caspian Sea.
The City was the capital of Iran in the Safavid era for 51 years (from 955 After Hejrah) and is therefore of cultural and historical significance in Iranian history.
Qazvin has always been a good place for science, literature, culture, art, religion, philosophy, and theology, and has nurtured many great scientists and scholars.
The presence of various glorious historical sites and monuments has increased the City’s tourist attractions. Alamoot Castle, the Nine Gates, famous mosques such as Jame' Mosque founded at the Haroon Rashid era (192 After Hejrah), old religious schools such as Peyghambariya and Sheykholeslam, and a number of mausoleums are among the historical remains of the City.
The climate of Qazvin is pleasant and free of pollution despite the presence of several industrial units around it, the reason being that the City is located on an open plain and has natural features like Evan Lake.
Regarding industries, apart from Shahid Rajaee power plant and Abyek Cement Company, Alborz Industrial City has given an exceptional position to Qazvin Province.
Regarding agriculture, although Qazvin constitutes only 1% of the total area of Iran, it contains 10% of all the orchards and 5% of all the cultivated lands in the Country.
Tourist Attractions of Qazvin Province
More than 138 historical sites and monuments have already been recognized and studied in the Province. These include old chambers (Hojreh), religious buildings, mausoleums, baths, sites and passages, mosques, water reservoirs, and historical edifices.
Based on the explorations and studies of these ancient and historical sites, Qazvin Province is among few regions in the Country that were first settled in the sixth millennium before Christ (Zaghe and Sagzabad Hills). Other historical monuments are indicative of the importance in history of the area of Qazvin during Saljukian to Ghajar eras (Aghbaba Gate, Kharaghan Towers, Caravansarais, etc.).
Up to the end of March 2000, about 30 monuments have been officially registered including tombs, shrines, towers, castles, hills, etc.
Mosques and Shrines
- Jame e Atigh Mosque
- Heidarrieh Mosque
- Sanjideh Mosque
- Panjeh Ali Mosque
- Masjed Al-nabi
- Peighambarieh School-Mosque
- Salehieh School-Mosque
- Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque
- Sardar School-Mosque
- Imamzadeh Hossein Mausoleum
- Peighambarieh Mausoleum
- Imamzadeh Ismail Mausoleum
Popular Historical Edifices
- Chehel Sotun
- Ali Ghapu
- Hokmabad Garden
- Imam Ahmad Ghazali’s tomb
- Hamdollah Mostowfi’s tomb
- Shahide Sales’ tomb
- Meimoun Ghale
- Aminieh Hosseinieh
- Qazvin Gates
- Safa Traditional Bath
- Bazaar Complex
- Sa’d-ol-Saltaneh Complex
- Saray e Vazir
- Saraye Razavi
- Saraye Haj Reza
Geography of Qazvin Province
Qazvin Province is located on the northwest of Iran’s central plateau between Alborz mountain range, Zanjan Province mountains, and Iran’s central mountain range. The Province is closed off by Mazandaran and Gilan Provinces on the north, by Zanjan Provinces on the west, by Hamadan and Markazi Provinces on the south and by Tehran Provinces on the east.
The Province covers an area of about 16000 square kilometers, which is less than 1% of the total area of the Country. It is at an altitude of 1298 meters above sea level at the City center, 1320 meters on the far north of the City’s Urban Plan area, 1280 meters on an outer belt to the south. The City is 5 kilometers long.
Precipitation in Qazvin varies from 200 to 300 millimeters per year on average. Temperature fluctuation during day and night and throughout the year is high. Average annual temperature deceases from south to north (except for Shahrood and Ghezelozan river valleys) and from east to west (Maximum temperature in Qazvin is +41°C and minimum -26°C).
There are various lakes across the Province, the most important of which are:
- Evan Lake: In the south of the village of Evan, Roodbar Alamoot region
- Daryabeik: 25 kilometers east of the city of Avaj in a place called "Deilook"
- Daryabak: North east of the village of Zereshk, Roodbar Shahrestan region
- Lake of Sefidrood dam: Part of the lake is in Roodbar Shahrestan region.
Qazvin Urban Structure
The present urban structure of the City is made up of two parts:
1. Commercial center where Bazaar is of utmost importance plus an increasing number of shopping malls in different parts of the City, especially, in its center and a great number of shops along either sides of the main streets.
2. Residential units, public service centers, educational and cultural centers, and green spaces scattered throughout the City.
To deal with housing issues and to curb population growth in Qazvin, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Construction gave the go-ahead to construct a number of townships in the nearby areas of the City such as:
- Danesh Town (Farhangian)
- Mouhammadieh Town (Zibashahr)
Moreover, some villages, due to proximity to the City, have received migrants and have consequently expanded to become satellite cities around Qazvin, like Eghbalieh and Alvand.
1. Northwest roads along Zanjan Rood river to Zanjan City and from there to Tarom, Gilan and Azarbaijan.
2. Southwest roads to Abhar, Soltanieh and from there to Kharaghan, Eshtehard, Shahryar and Rey.
3. North and northwest roads to Roodbar Alamoot, Taleghan and from there to Tonekabon, and other coastal cities along the Caspian Sea. Recently, a study has been under way in the Ministry of Roads and Transportation for the construction of a road that will connect Roodbar Alamoot (Moallem Kelayeh) to the port city of Tonekabon.
4. South roads to Dashtabi, Booin Zahra, Hajib, and Zarand and from there to Saveh, Rey, Varamin, and Isfahan.